Understanding Periodontitis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments

Periodontitis, commonly known as gum disease, is a serious oral health condition that can lead to severe dental and systemic health problems if left untreated. This chronic inflammatory disease affects the gums and the supporting structures of the teeth, potentially leading to tooth loss and other significant health issues. At Fort Bend Periodontics & Implantology in Sugar Land, TX, we specialize in diagnosing, treating, and managing periodontitis. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the symptoms, causes, and treatments for periodontitis, emphasizing the importance of professional dental care in maintaining optimal oral health.

What is Periodontitis?

Bacterial infection causes periodontitis, a progressive gum disease. It begins with inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding the teeth and can advance to the destruction of the bone that supports the teeth. If not addressed, periodontitis can lead to tooth mobility and loss. The condition is primarily the result of poor oral hygiene, but various other factors can contribute to its development.

How Common is Periodontitis?

Periodontitis is alarmingly common, affecting approximately 47% of adults over the age of 30 in the United States. The prevalence increases with age, impacting about 70% of adults aged 65 and older. Understanding its widespread nature underscores the importance of preventive care and early intervention.

Who is at Risk for Periodontitis?

Periodontitis is more likely to develop as people age, but it can affect anyone with poor oral hygiene. Individuals with a family history of gum disease, smokers, and underlying health conditions such as diabetes are at higher risk. Even hormonal changes, such as those occurring during pregnancy or menopause, can increase susceptibility to gum disease.

Symptoms and Causes of Periodontitis

What Are the Symptoms of Periodontitis?

Healthy gums are firm, pale pink, and fit snugly around the teeth. In contrast, periodontitis can manifest through several symptoms:

  • Red or purplish gums
  • Swollen gums
  • Bleeding gums, especially while brushing or flossing
  • Tender or painful gums
  • Persistent foul breath (halitosis)
  • Pus between the teeth and gums
  • Loose or shifting teeth
  • Tooth loss
  • Gum recession causes teeth to appear longer.
  • Pain when chewing
  • New spaces or gaps between teeth.
  • Changes in the way teeth fit together when biting

What Causes Periodontitis?

Plaque and tartar buildup on the teeth are the main causes of periodontitis. Plaque is a sticky film of bacteria that forms on teeth. If regular brushing and flossing fail to remove it, it hardens into tartar, a condition that only a dental professional can remove. This buildup allows bacteria to penetrate below the gum line, leading to inflammation and infection.

Other Contributing Factors Include:

  • Smoking: One of the most significant risk factors, smoking impairs the body’s immune response and makes it harder to fight off gum infections.
  • Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can contribute to gum disease.
  • Genetics: Having a family history of periodontitis can increase susceptibility.
  • Hormonal Changes: Pregnancy, menopause, and the use of birth control pills can make gums more sensitive and prone to gum disease.
  • Other Health Conditions: Conditions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and respiratory infections have been linked to periodontitis.

Progression of Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease progresses through several stages:

  1. Gingivitis: The earliest stage, characterized by red, swollen gums that bleed easily. At this point, the condition is still reversible with proper dental care.
  2. Mild Periodontitis: Untreated gingivitis can lead to mild periodontitis, where gums begin to pull away from the teeth, forming pockets that collect plaque, tartar, and bacteria.
  3. Moderate Periodontitis: Continued progression leads to further bone loss and more significant damage to the supporting tissues.
  4. Severe Periodontitis: Advanced bone loss and gum recession occur, resulting in loose teeth and potential tooth loss. Chronic bad breath and pus around the gum line are common.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is Periodontitis Diagnosed?

A dentist diagnoses periodontitis by conducting a comprehensive examination, which includes:

  • Medical History Review: Understanding the patient’s overall health and any risk factors.
  • Gum Examination: Checking for signs of inflammation, gum recession, and pocket depth using a periodontal probe.
  • Dental X-rays: Assessing bone loss around the teeth.
  • Referral to a Periodontist: In severe cases, patients may be referred to a gum disease specialist for further evaluation and treatment.

Management and Treatment

How is Periodontitis Treated?

Treatment depends on the severity of the condition and includes both non-surgical and surgical options.

Nonsurgical Treatments:

  • Scaling and Root Planing: A deep-cleaning procedure that removes plaque and tartar from below the gum line and smooths the tooth roots to help gums reattach.
  • Antibiotics: Oral or topical antibiotics may be prescribed to control bacterial infections.

Surgical Treatments:

  • Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP): Platelets from the patient’s blood are used to promote tissue regeneration and healing.
  • Bone Grafts: Used to regenerate bone loss due to periodontitis. This can involve the use of the patient’s own bone, donated bone, or synthetic materials.
  • Soft Tissue Grafts: Tissue from another part of the mouth is used to cover exposed tooth roots and prevent further recession.
  • Flap Surgery: The gums are lifted back to allow deep cleaning of the tooth roots and bone, and then sutured back in place.
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration: A biocompatible membrane is placed between the bone and gum tissue to encourage bone regrowth.


How Can I Reduce My Risk for Periodontitis?

Preventing periodontitis involves maintaining good oral hygiene and making healthy lifestyle choices:

  • Brush and Floss Daily: Remove plaque before it hardens into tartar.
  • Regular Dental Checkups: Professional cleanings and checkups help catch early signs of gum disease.
  • Quit Smoking: Smoking significantly increases the risk of gum disease.
  • Healthy Diet: A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains supports gum health.
  • Manage Health Conditions: Controlling conditions like diabetes can reduce the risk of periodontitis.

Outlook and Prognosis

Can Periodontitis Be Cured?

Although we cannot completely cure periodontitis, we can effectively manage it with ongoing treatment and proper care. Regular dental visits and good oral hygiene are essential for maintaining gum health and preventing disease progression.

Living with Periodontitis

When Should I See My Dentist?

If you notice any symptoms of gum disease, such as red, swollen, or bleeding gums, persistent foul breath, or loose teeth, it’s crucial to see a dentist immediately. Early intervention can prevent the disease from progressing and preserve your oral health.

What Questions Should I Ask My Dentist?

  • What stage of gum disease do I have?
  • Do I have any bone loss?
  • What are my treatment options?
  • How long will treatment take?
  • What is the expected recovery time?
  • How often should I have my teeth cleaned to maintain my gum health?


Understanding periodontitis and taking proactive steps to manage it is essential for maintaining both oral and overall health. At Fort Bend Periodontics & Implantology, we are committed to providing comprehensive care for gum disease, ensuring that our patients achieve and maintain optimal oral health.

For personalized care and expert advice, schedule a consultation with Fort Bend Periodontics & Implantology. Whether you need periodontal care, dental implants, or treatment for gum recession in Sugar Land, our skilled team is here to guide you on your journey to excellent oral health.

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Fort Bend Periodontics & Implantology

Fort Bend Periodontics & Implantology